Coconut Oil

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The kernel or meat of mature coconuts collected from the coconut palm are used to extract coconut oil. It has a higher percentage of saturated fat, which slows oxidation and makes it resistant to rancidity, lasting up to two years without rotting. Certain fatty acids and derivatives of coconut oil have been shown to have negative impacts on the inactivation of microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast, fungi, and enveloped viruses. Mechanical extraction methods are commonly used to get coconut oil. Well-dried copra is pressed in a screw press or hydraulic press to extract oil by shattering the oil cells in the kernel in the dry extraction process. Filtration separates the oil and cake after extraction. According to a study, unrefined coconut oil is more stable than refined coconut oil since refined oil contains less tocopherol (Gordon and Rahman 1991). Cake can be used as a substrate for Aspergillus oryzae species to produce alpha amylase (Ramachandran et al. 2004). Oil extraction employing enzymes such as polygalacturonases, á-amylase, and proteases was found to be a more efficient process in terms of energy use, with an 8 percent yield (McGlone et al. 1986).

Coconut oil is an important cooking medium in many countries. Besides, the oil has varied industrial applications. It is used in the manufacture of toilet soaps, laundry soaps, surface active agents and detergents, hair tonics, cosmetics, etc. It is used throughout the country as a hair oil as it helps growth of the hair. As a massage oil it has a cooling effect on the body. Owing to these qualities coconut oil has a potential market. Since the price of coconut oil in the international market is very much lower than the domestic price, the quality and attractiveness of consumer packs are important factors to compete in the world market. While the demand for coconut oil for cooking purpose is elastic, its demand as hair oil is inelastic.

CRUDE COCONUT OIL

Scope
This Standard applies for Crude Coconut Oil.

References
SNI (Indonesia National Standard) 01-2902-1992
IS (Indian Standard) 542:1968
PNS (Philippine National Standard)/BAFPS
MS (Malaysian Standard) 239:1987
TIS (Thailand Coconut Industrial Standard) 203-1977

Definition
Crude coconut oil is the product obtained by expression and/or solvent extraction from dried kernel (copra) of the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), and is free from admixture with other oils and fats. It is clear and free from rancidity, adulterants including mineral oil, sediment, suspended and other foreign matter and separated water.

Essential Composition and Quality Factors of Crude Coconut Oil
Moisture & Impurities (%): Max 0.5
Free Fatty Acid (%): Max 4
Color : 4 - 12 Red
Iodine Value (Wijs) : 7.5 – 10.5

Saponification Value (mg KOH/g oil sample): 250 – 264

Food Additives
None permitted

Hygiene
It is recommended that the product covered by the provisions of this standard shall be in accordance with the appropriate sections of the General Principles of Food Hygiene recommended by the CODEX Alimentarius Commission (CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003).

Labelling and Packaging
It is recommended that the process of labelling and packaging of the product covered by the provisions of this standard shall be in accordance with the appropriate sections of the General Standard for the Labelling of Pre-packaged Foods (CODEX STAN 1 – 1985, Rev. 6 - 2008).

 

RBD COCONUT OIL

Scope
This Standard applies for Refined, Bleached and Deodorized (RBD) Coconut Oil.

References
IS (Indian Standard) 542:1968
PNS (Philippine National Standard)/BAFPS
MS (Malaysian Standard) 239:1987
TIS (Thailand Coconut Industrial Standard) 203-1

Definition
RBD stands for refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil obtained from crude coconut oil which has been refined by neutralization with alkali, bleached with bleaching earth or activated car-bon or both and deodorized with steam; no other chemical agents being used.

Essential Composition and Quality Factors of Crude Coconut Oil
Moisture & Impurities (%): Max 0.1
Free Fatty Acid (%): Max 0.1
Color: Max 1R
Iodine Value (Wijs): 7.5 – 10.5
Saponification Value (mg KOH/g oil sample): 250 – 264
Acid: 0.56
Odor: Odorless

Hygiene
It is recommended that the product covered by the provisions of this standard shall be in accor-dance with the appropriate sections of the General Principles of Food Hygiene recommended by the CODEX Alimentarius Commission (CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003).

Labelling and Packaging
It is recommended that the process of labelling and packaging of the product covered by the pro-visions of this standard shall be in accordance with the appropriate sections of the General Stan-dard for the Labelling of Pre-packaged Foods (CODEX STAN 1 – 1985, Rev. 6 - 2008).

THREE IMPROVED METHODS FOR COCONUT OIL EXTRACTION

Three methods for coconut oil extration using acetic acid, baker's yeast, and mixed enzymes were investigated. Coconut milk was allowed to settle for two hours; for cream separation. When the cream reacted with 25 % acetic acid at 0.l % ‑ 0.4 % levels or baker's yeast at 0.5 ‑... read more

HEALTH HAZARDS OF COCONUT OIL A MYTH OR REALITY?

Coconut oil which forms about 4.9 per cent of the world production of oils and fats, assumes much importance among the common vegetable oils in the world. But the alleged atherogenicity of coconut oibdue to its highly saturated nature hinders coconut oil from having a top position in the world... read more

PRODUCTION OF COCONUT OIL DIRECTLY FROM FRESH COCONUT MEAT USING THE WASTE HEAT RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY: A "NEW OIL PROCESS"

In several, areas, in Sri Lanka the use of pits for making coconut shell charcoal is restricted or not permitted due to environmental damage or the proximity of human habitation. In addition approxima­tely 50% of the gross heat content of the shells is lost to the surroundings during the process.... read more

Fortification of coconut oil with sesame oil through micro expeller extraction process

Value addition to coconut oil is highly desirable in order to increase the range of coconut products. A study was conducted to formulate palatable coconut oil (CNO) blends enriched with essential fatty acid (EFA) using sesame seed as the supplementary source of EFA. For this purpose, micro-expelling process was employed... read more

Quality of Coconut Oil using Fruit of Dwarf Coconut

The purpose of this research was to study processing of coconut oil which focused on evaluation of the quality of oil by using fruit of several Dwarf coconut as raw materials. The varieties used were Salak Green Dwarf (SGD), Raja Brown Dwarf (RBD) and Bali Yellow Dwarf (BYD). The oil... read more

Distinguishing Coconut Oil from Coconut Paring Oil using Principle Component Analysis of Fatty Acid Data

A study was carried out to distinguish coconut oil from coconut pairing oil by the application of principal component analysis (PCA) to fatty acid compositional and iodine value data. Five samples of ordinary coconut oil extracted from five different batches of copra and five samples of coconut pairing oil obtained... read more

Clinical Studies In Sri Lanka Relating To Consumption Of Coconut Oil

Senadheera quoting a work by Nicholas and Paranavitharana states that in Sri Lanka, coconut groves are mentioned in early inscriptions as well as in literary works dating to about the 2nd century AD and that its nuts were eaten when tender (1). Robert Knox in the 17th Century wrote– “Coconut... read more

Protect and restore your vision with coconut oil

Vivian was diagnosed with diabetes 20 years ago at the age of 58. "To be quite honest," says Vivian, "when I was first diagnosed I don’t really remember what I was told. I think I was so shocked to realize I was falling prey to diabetes, a disease I thought... read more

Health Benefit Of Coconut Oil

The health and nutritional benefits from consuming coconut oil have been recognized in many parts of the world for centuries. In India, coconut tree has been considered from time immemorial as “Kalpavriksha”, literally meaning “a tree that bestows all boons”.

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The Complete Coconut Oil Handbook

The coconut tree is one of the most versatile plants in existence. Whilst we are all familiar with the coconut as a food source not many of us know the myriad of other benefits the coconut holds. In many countries coconut husks are woven into fabrics for mats, insulation and... read more

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