Virgin Coconut Oil


The mother of all oils, virgin coconut oil, is claimed to be. It's high in vitamin E, medium-chain fatty acids, especially lauric acid, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, and it's easy to digest. The virgin coconut oil contains around 50% lauric acid, which provides human immunity. Virgin coconut oil is coconut oil prepared by the wet technique. Because virgin coconut oil has not been exposed to high heat, solvents, or the refining process, it retains its fresh coconut fragrance and flavor. Fresh coconut meat or coconut milk can be used to make virgin coconut oil. By grinding, drying, and pressing fresh meat, it can be removed. It is made from coconut milk by grating it, combining it with water, then centrifuging it at a high speed. The cream can also be boiled to eliminate any leftover oil after the milk has been fermented for 36–48 hours. This process of extracting coconut oil from coconut milk does not require the use of a solvent, lowering the investment cost and energy requirements significantly. Furthermore, the RBD (refining, bleaching, and deodorizing) step is eliminated (Villarino et al. 2007). When compared to refined coconut oil, a number of prior studies have demonstrated the existence of higher phenolic content, which correlates with higher antioxidant activity in virgin coconut oil (Marina et al. 2009). Coconut oil aids thyroid health by boosting metabolism and raising body temperatures. It also treats wounds, restores damaged tissues, moisturizes the skin, nourishes the brain, reverses neurological illnesses, and avoids gastrointestinal malnutrition.

This Standard applies for Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO).

•    SNI (Indonesia National Standard) 7381:2008
•    PNS FDA 42: 2022
•    MS (Malaysian Standard) 2043:2007
•    TIS (Thailand Industrial Standard) 203-1977 and MOP 57-1981
•    FSSAI (Food Safety & Standard Authority of India)
•    Sri Lanka Standards 32:2017
•    ICC Standard for Virgin Coconut Oil

DefinitionVirgin coconut oil (VCO) is obtained from fresh and mature kernel (12 months old from pollination) of the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) by mechanical or natural means with or without the application of heat, which does not lead to alteration of the nature of the oil. VCO has not undergone chemical refining, bleaching, or deodorizing. It can be consumed in its natural state without the need for further processing. Virgin coconut oil consists mainly of medium chain triglycerides, which are resistant to peroxidation. Virgin coconut oil is colorless, free of sediment and contains natural fresh coconut scent. It is free from rancid odor or taste.

Essential Composition and Quality Factors of Crude Coconut Oil
Moisture (%): Max 0.15
Free Fatty Acid (%) as Lauric Acid: Max 0.2
Peroxide Value meq/kg: Max 3.0
Refractive index at 40°C: 0.915 – 0.920
Refractive index at 40°C: 1.4480 – 1.4492
Insoluble impurities per cent by mass: Max 0.05
Saponification Value (Mg KOH/g oil): 250 – 265
Iodine Value (Wijs): 4.0 - 11.0
Unsaponifiable matter %  by mass, max: 0.50
Specific gravity at 30 deg./30°C: 0.915 – 0.920
Polenske Value, min: 13
Total Plate Count: < 0.5
Color: Water Colorless
Odor and Taste: Natural fresh coconut scent, free of sediment, free from rancid odor and taste

Food Additives
None permitted

Iron (Fe): Max 5.0 mg/kg
Copper (Cu): Max 0.4 mg/kg
Lead (Pb): Max 0.1 mg/kg
Arsenic (As): Max 0.1 mg/kg

Gas Chromatography (GC) ranges of Fatty Acid Component

Common Name Composition Specification (%)
Caproic acid C 6:0 0.10 – 0.95
Caprylic acid C 8:0 4 – 10
Capric acid C 10:0 4 – 8
Lauric acid C 12:0 45 – 56
Myristic acid C 14:0 16 – 21
Palmitic acid C 16:0 7.5 – 10.2
Stearic acid C 18:0 2 – 4
Oleic acid C 18:1 4.5 - 10
Linoleic acid C 18:2 0.7 – 2.5

HygieneIt is recommended that the product covered by the provisions of this standard shall be in accordance with the appropriate sections of the General Principles of Food Hygiene recommended by the CODEX Alimentarius Commission (CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003).

Labelling and PackagingThe name of the food on the label shall be “Virgin Coconut Oil”. The provisions of the General Standard for the labelling of Pre-packaged Foods (CODEX STAN 1 – 1985, Rev. 7 - 2010) shall apply.

Methods of Analysis and Sampling
Based on Codex Alimentarius (Volume 13).

The Health Benefits of Virgin Coconut Oil, or VCO, are endless.  Here are a few: 

  • It is rich in lauric acid — a powerful biochemical to help boost the immune system and treat a vast range of medical conditions from common allergies to critical ailments.
  • VCO helps in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K), vit. B and minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe). It is easily absorbed by the body and by the skin, it is food for the skin and can slow the aging process by keeping the skin healthy.
  • VCO has an energizing effect and makes the bodywork, heal, metabolize & defend better. It has anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and immune-boosting action. It has a slimming effect.
  • VCO has an anti-inflammatory action when massaged on limbs and joints. It can be used to relieve gout, arthritis, rheumatism, joint pains, swelling, kill skin fungus and help in wart removal. It can stimulate hair follicle growth when massaged on the scalp.

VCO can also block the harmful effects of many toxins (such as ethanol, MSG, aflatoxin, E.coli endotoxin). It can rejuvenate diseased tissues and stimulate white blood (T cell) production. It can be used to help the body detoxify.


Solomon Islands Organically Certified Virgin Coconut Oil For The Nation And The World

Many tropical nations have strrugled to fully achieve their potential in the global economy. This situation  was particularly acute in the solomon islands after the civil strife caused the collapse of almost all domestic and international markets snd most central and provincisl goverment services.

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Overview Of Coconut Production And Trade Performance Of Coconut Oil And Virgin Coconut Oil In 2006

The world coconut area in 2005 was about 12.50 million ha, which is slightly up by a rate of 0.2% when compared to the previous year's figure. The total production was 1 1.72 million MT copra equivalent, which also increased by 2.47% over last year. The APCC member countries occupied... read more

Farm Level Processing Of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) And Its Economic Implications

Indonesia with 3.7 million ha. area under coconuts has about 18.5 million coconut farmers whose livelihood are dependent on coconut plantation. Copra is still the main commodity produced from coconuts. If each farmer family has 1.0 ha producing 1 ton copra/ha/year, the annual net income of the family will be... read more

An Interview With Mr. Paulo P. Mamangun Jr., President, Philippines Virgin Coconut Oil Association, Philippines

Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) industry in the Philippines is quite vibrant. It is interesting to know about the industry with a view to desseminate the information for other coconut producing countries. Muhartoyo, Documentalist, Asian and Pacific Coconut Community, and Managing Editor, COCOINFO INTERNATIONAL has successfully interviewed Mr. Paulo P. Mamangun... read more

Intermediate Moisture Content (IMC) Technology For Producing Small Scale Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO)

Recently Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) has been well known as a special premium product from coconut, even in the country where coconut tree cannot grow like in the USA or European countries. Compared to ordinary coconut oil, VCO has more nutritive values which are important for maintaining our healthy life.

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Autism Reversed With Virgin Coconut Oil

Autism is a developmental disability that affects how the brain functions, especially in those areas of the brain that control social ability and communication skills. Boys are most likely to develop autism, and most children are diagnosed before the age of three.

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Virgin Coconut Oil Natural Viagra

Apart from keeping cholesterol levels under control, three spoonfuls of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) a day may enhance a person’s sex life, findings of a research study showed. “Hindi lang pang-gata, pang-sex pa (Coconut meat extract is not only for cooking but also for sex)”, Agriculture Secretary Proceso Alcala quipped... read more

Virgin Coconut Oil Hailed As Cure For Alzheimer’s

After previous claims as an antiseptic, AIDS cure, anti-infective, cholesterolbasher, and remedy for various aches and pains, coconut oil is now being hailed as a possible miracle cure for Alzheimer’s.

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Organic Cerfitication Of Coconut Farms And Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) In North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Em ire. mental issues and health conscious communities around the globe have encouraged the practice of organic farming. Environmental disasters such as heavy metal pollution in Minamata Bay, Japan, posed serious health problems. Excessive uses of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers as well as chemicals for livestock breeding and agricultural farming... read more

The Health Benefits Of Virgin Coconut Oil

Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a saturated fatty acid (92%) which has a unique structure, i.e. 64% of which is Medium Chain Saturated Fatty Acid (MCSFA) consisting of 50% lauric acid (Cl2), 6-7% capric acid (CIO), and 8% caprylic acid (C8). As most fatty acids of the VCO are saturated,... read more

Technological Innovation In The Manufacturing Of High Quality Virgin Coconut Oil In Thailand

Thai people have been using coconut oil for food, cosmetics and medicine from time immemorial. Traditionally, coconut oil (CNO) was produced at the household level by two distinct processes, viz. frying o f copra and fermentation o f coconut, milk obtained from fresh coconut meat. A serious setback was instigated... read more

Technical Updates On The Processing Of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO), Coconut Flour, And Coconut Water

To cope up with fast paced of industry development and to sustain the market demands the research and development of the Philippine coconut industry shifted its focus on 1) product development of functional foods and 2) efficacy studies on its beneficial effects to human health and nutrition. Emphasis was given... read more

New Technologies On The Production Of Virgin Coconut Oil And Their Applicability To Integrated Coconut Processing Modules

The increasing number of published books, literatures, results of medical researches and internet information extolling the beneficial effects of coconut oil to the human body led to the development of a “niche” and very high value market for a special type of coconut oil which is processed differently from the... read more

Empowering Smallholder Communities With Virgin Coconut Oil Production - “Bringing Hope”

The idyllic image of a pristine South Pacific is being tarnished by governance, environmental and trade issues. Coconut is an abundant resource in the islands, but it is increasingly being viewed simply as a subsistence crop since farmers are less and less willing to produce copra for industrial extraction of... read more

Potential For Virgin Coconut Oil In The Global Market

The global market trend is changing, nearly 49% of consumers around that world are thinking there are overweight and trying to lose weight. They are seeking to the healthful-food choices with help from food and beverage producer. “There is the opportunities of food manufacturer and retailer to lead a healthy... read more

The Right Technology To Process Quality Virgin Coconut Oil For The Global Market

While the copra based coconut oil has been in existence for more than a century now, its high quality version, virgin coconut oil (VCO) was only introduced in the world market at the start of 21st century. From the time it entered the commercial market up to the present, VCO... read more

The Effects Of Virgin Coconut Oil On Fasting Serum Glucose, Insulin, Ketone And Tri-Glyceride Concentrations Among Indonesia Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetics

Diabetes mellitus is a condition characterized by high blood glucose due to insulin resistence. Dietary regimen is one important component of diabetic management. Virgin coconut oil (VCO), a source of medium chain fatty acid, has been postulated to improve blood glucose and lipid profile of non-insulin dependent diabetics, due to... read more

Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) Substitution For The Production Of Ice Cream And Fruit Flavored VCO-emulsion

Although Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) has been included in the list of foods that are considered safe to consume by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), many consumers are still reluctant to consume it. They may think that VCO cannot instantly recover their illnesses unlike chemical medicines which can... read more

Coconut Comeback – A Sea Change? Innovation To Realiase The Potential Of Virgin Coconut Oil

C oconut Comeback’ was the title of the awardwinning Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s documentary in their Landline TV program aired in mid-July 2015. It told the story of the work of Kokonut Pacific in the Solomon Islands. The fundamental question posed in the title is whether this successful venture in the... read more

Integration of In Silico and In Vitro Approach to Reveal the Anticancer Efficacy of Virgin Coconut Oil

Author: Babita Pruseth, Silvi Banerjee & Amit Ghosh

Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has antioxidant properties and is being increasingly used as nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals. It also has a long history of ethnopharmacological use. Anticancer effect of VCO has been reported in several articles. The main bottleneck of exploring the anticancer efficacy... read more

Study on Fatty Acid Composition and Amino Acid Content of Coconut Endosperm of Selected Coconut Cultivars in Thailand

Author: Wilaiwan Twishsri

The nutritive values of tropical fruits like coconut are of interest to consumers and useful for the breeding program. The two experiments were carried out in Completely Randomized Design with 3 replications. The first experiment aimed to determine the essential and non-essential amino acid content of... read more

Processing of Virgin Coconut Oil in Sri Lanka Using Cold Extraction Method: An Economic Analysis

Author : Pathiraja, P.M.E.K, Fernando, M.T.N and Jayasundera, J.M.M.A

Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) is a newly introduced product in Sri Lanka with a high export market potential. Only a few entrepreneurs however, are capitalizing on this opportunity due to several factors such as lack of rigorous economic analyses and unavailability of information... read more

Optimization of Aqueous Extraction of Virgin Coconut Oil Using Response Surface Methodology

The present investigation deals with optimization of aqueous extraction process for maximum yield of virgin coconut oil (VCO) from coconut milk extracted from coconut meat.  Optimization of the process parameters including dilution ratio (w/w), grinding time (min), temperature (°C), cream separation time (hour) and pH was analyzed using one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT)... read more

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